The Estonian national airline will fold following a decision by the European Commission that funding given to the company by the Estonian government was not in line with EU regulations. Estonian Air , founded in 1991, does not have the funds to refund the state and declared bankruptcy.
The Commission began an investigation into Estonian state aid to the company in 2013, with Estonian authorities waiting for a decision ever since.
On November 7, the Commission ruled that around 90 million euros given by the Estonian government to the company, gave the company an competitive advantage over others. This means the government must demand the full amount, plus interest, back from Estonian Air. The state had also earmarked a further 40 million euros, which would have been given to Estonian Air in case of a positive decision. That money will now go to the Nordic Aviation Group.
Commissioner Margrethe Vestager, in charge of competition policy, said: “Companies should compete based on a sustainable business model rather than relying on continued support by the State to stay in the market. Estonian Air has repeatedly received public subsidies over the past five years but did not carry out the necessary restructuring to become viable as a business. It would not be a good use of taxpayer money to keep Estonian Air in the market artificially – nor would it be fair to competitors, which have to compete without such support.”
The crunch question for the Commission was whether a private investor would have acted the same as the Estonian state, pouring in as much money on the same conditions – if the state aid corresponded with market conditions.
The Commission ruled that Estonian Air received support three times, although EU regulations allow state aid to be given only once a decade. The Commission also ruled that the company did not have a credible restructuring plan and that measures aimed at limiting the distortions of competition were not sufficient.
Estonian government has set up two companies to take over from Estonian Air. One, the fully state-owned Nordic Aviation Group will manage Estonian Air’s routes, while the other (Transpordi Varahaldus) will take on lease contracts.
The board of Estonian Air decided to halt all business activity from Sunday, November 8.
Economy Minister Kristen Michal said those at their destinations will be flown back home and those with tickets for future flights, will receive compensation.
The company serviced around 500,000 people annually in the last few years, giving employment to 200 people.
It is a sad ending for a company, which became a symbol for newly re-independent Estonia at the beginning of the 1990s.
The company was founded during turbulent times but helped Estonia establish connections with the West. In 1995, the company purchased two brand new Boeing aircraft, giving a boost to a nation trying to rebuild from over 50 years of occupation.
Between 1996 to 2010 the state relinquished controlling shares in the company, and only purchased the company back in 2010 to ensure it did not go bankrupt.
Since 2009, the government has handed around 135 million euros into the company in capital injections, state aid and restructuring aid. The last time the company earned a profit was in 2005.
In 2012, losses amounted to over 50 million euros, from a turnover of less than 100 million. Until then, and after, losses were far smaller. The reasons for 2012 losses were in the company’s drive to expand. In 2011 the state hired Tero Taskila, a Finnish expert who came with a much criticized 30,000 euros per month salary, to take the company to another level. Yet, the plans to expand the company failed. Estonian Air was also hit by higher fuel prices, troubles with aircraft and salary increases.
In 2013, the company embarked on a large-scale restructuring path, cutting its fleet and the number of destinations. Staff numbers were halved.
VES / ERR